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Communication - Expansion - 2 / 8 / 2003
  four orders of foreignness
Demosthenes / Valentine Wiggins
Nordic language recognizes four orders of foreignness
    • Utlanning, or otherlander
        - someone of another city or country
        Swedish word: utlīnning [u:tlen:ing] utlīnningen utlīnningar (noun)
        English translation: foreigner, alien
        Compounds: utlīnningslag -en—Aliens' Act 
    • Framling
        - "human" but of another world. Someone substantially different than us
        Swedish word: frīmling [fr'em:ling] frīmlingen frīmlingar (noun)
        English translation: stranger, foreigner, alien
        Compounds: frīmling(s)|skap -et—alien status, alienation
    • Raman
        - human but of differing species, someone so different
            in concept and idea as to be considered other
        Swedish word: ram [ra:m] ramen ramar (noun)
        English translation: frame / (figuratively "limits, bounds")
        Examples: inom mńjligheternas ram—within the limits of possibility
        Compounds: ram|avtal -et—skeleton (blanket) agreement
    • Varelse
        - alien, no "conversation" is possible, they might be intelligent,
           they may be self aware, but we wouldn't know it.
        Swedish word: varelse [v'a:relse] varelsen varelser (noun)
        English translation: being
        Examples: levande varelse—living creature
definitions from:

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